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The Allergy Outlook is unavailable for your location. Set your default location. More than 67 million americans suffer from allergy symptoms, including hay fever.
But, what is an allergy? What is an allergic reaction? What are common allergy symptoms? What allergy treatments are available?
The outer pollen wall, which prevents the pollen grain from shrinking and crushing the genetic material during desiccation, is composed of two layers.
These two layers are the tectum and the foot layer, which is just above the intine. The tectum and foot layer are separated by a region called the columella, which is composed of strengthening rods.
The outer wall is constructed with a resistant biopolymer called sporopollenin. Pollen apertures are regions of the pollen wall that may involve exine thinning or a significant reduction in exine thickness.
Elongated apertures or furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi singular: Apertures that are more circular are called pores. Colpi, sulci and pores are major features in the identification of classes of pollen.
The aperture may have a lid operculum , hence is described as operculate. The orientation of furrows relative to the original tetrad of microspores classifies the pollen as sulcate or colpate.
Sulcate pollen has a furrow across the middle of what was the outer face when the pollen grain was in its tetrad. The transfer of pollen grains to the female reproductive structure pistil in angiosperms is called pollination.
This transfer can be mediated by the wind, in which case the plant is described as anemophilous literally wind-loving.
Anemophilous plants typically produce great quantities of very lightweight pollen grains, sometimes with air-sacs. Non-flowering seed plants e.
Anemophilous flowering plants generally have inconspicuous flowers. Entomophilous literally insect-loving plants produce pollen that is relatively heavy, sticky and protein -rich, for dispersal by insect pollinators attracted to their flowers.
Many insects and some mites are specialized to feed on pollen, and are called palynivores. In non-flowering seed plants, pollen germinates in the pollen chamber, located beneath the micropyle , underneath the integuments of the ovule.
A pollen tube is produced, which grows into the nucellus to provide nutrients for the developing sperm cells. Sperm cells of Pinophyta and Gnetophyta are without flagella , and are carried by the pollen tube, while those of Cycadophyta and Ginkgophyta have many flagella.
When placed on the stigma of a flowering plant, under favorable circumstances, a pollen grain puts forth a pollen tube , which grows down the tissue of the style to the ovary , and makes its way along the placenta , guided by projections or hairs, to the micropyle of an ovule.
The nucleus of the tube cell has meanwhile passed into the tube, as does also the generative nucleus, which divides if it hasn't already to form two sperm cells.
The sperm cells are carried to their destination in the tip of the pollen tube. Double-strand breaks in DNA that arise during pollen tube growth appear to be efficiently repaired in the generative cell that carries the male genomic information to be passed on to the next plant generation.
Pollen's sporopollenin outer sheath affords it some resistance to the rigours of the fossilisation process that destroy weaker objects; it is also produced in huge quantities.
There is an extensive fossil record of pollen grains, often disassociated from their parent plant. The discipline of palynology is devoted to the study of pollen, which can be used both for biostratigraphy and to gain information about the abundance and variety of plants alive — which can itself yield important information about paleoclimates.
Also, pollen analysis has been widely used for reconstructing past changes in vegetation and their associated drivers .
Pollen is first found in the fossil record in the late Devonian period,   but at that time it is indistinguishable from spores.
Nasal allergy to pollen is called pollinosis , and allergy specifically to grass pollen is called hay fever. Generally, pollens that cause allergies are those of anemophilous plants pollen is dispersed by air currents.
Such plants produce large quantities of lightweight pollen because wind dispersal is random and the likelihood of one pollen grain landing on another flower is small , which can be carried for great distances and are easily inhaled, bringing it into contact with the sensitive nasal passages.
Pollen allergies are common in polar and temperate climate zones, where production of pollen is seasonal. In the tropics pollen production varies less by the season, and allergic reactions less.
In northern Europe, common pollens for allergies are those of birch and alder , and in late summer wormwood and different forms of hay.
Grass pollen is also associated with asthma exacerbations in some people, a phenomenon termed thunderstorm asthma. In the US, people often mistakenly blame the conspicuous goldenrod flower for allergies.
Since this plant is entomophilous its pollen is dispersed by animals , its heavy, sticky pollen does not become independently airborne.
Most late summer and fall pollen allergies are probably caused by ragweed , a widespread anemophilous plant.
Arizona was once regarded as a haven for people with pollen allergies, although several ragweed species grow in the desert. However, as suburbs grew and people began establishing irrigated lawns and gardens , more irritating species of ragweed gained a foothold and Arizona lost its claim of freedom from hay fever.
Anemophilous spring blooming plants such as oak , birch , hickory , pecan , and early summer grasses may also induce pollen allergies.
Most cultivated plants with showy flowers are entomophilous and do not cause pollen allergies. The number of people in the United States affected by hay fever is between 20 and 40 million,  and such allergy has proven to be the most frequent allergic response in the nation.
There are certain evidential suggestions pointing out hay fever and similar allergies to be of hereditary origin. Individuals who suffer from eczema or are asthmatic tend to be more susceptible to developing long-term hay fever.
In Denmark , decades of rising temperatures cause pollen to appear earlier and in greater numbers, as well as introduction of new species such as ragweed.
The most efficient way to handle a pollen allergy is by preventing contact with the material. Individuals carrying the ailment may at first believe that they have a simple summer cold, but hay fever becomes more evident when the apparent cold does not disappear.
The confirmation of hay fever can be obtained after examination by a general physician. Antihistamines are effective at treating mild cases of pollinosis, this type of non-prescribed drugs includes loratadine , cetirizine and chlorpheniramine.
They do not prevent the discharge of histamine , but it has been proven that they do prevent a part of the chain reaction activated by this biogenic amine , which considerably lowers hay fever symptoms.
Decongestants can be administered in different ways such as tablets and nasal sprays. Allergy immunotherapy AIT treatment involves administering doses of allergens to accustom the body to pollen, thereby inducing specific long-term tolerance.
Discovered by Leonard Noon and John Freeman in , allergy immunotherapy represents the only causative treatment for respiratory allergies.
Most major classes of predatory and parasitic arthropods contain species that eat pollen, despite the common perception that bees are the primary pollen-consuming arthropod group.
Many other Hymenoptera other than bees consume pollen as adults, though only a small number feed on pollen as larvae including some ant larvae.
Spiders are normally considered carnivores but pollen is an important source of food for several species, particularly for spiderlings , which catch pollen on their webs.
It is not clear how spiderlings manage to eat pollen however, since their mouths are not large enough to consume pollen grains. Members of some beetle families such as Mordellidae and Melyridae feed almost exclusively on pollen as adults, while various lineages within larger families such as Curculionidae , Chrysomelidae , Cerambycidae , and Scarabaeidae are pollen specialists even though most members of their families are not e.
Similarly, Ladybird beetles mainly eat insects, but many species also eat pollen, as either part or all of their diet. Hemiptera are mostly herbivores or omnivores but pollen feeding is known and has only been well studied in the Anthocoridae.
Many adult flies, especially Syrphidae , feed on pollen, and three UK syrphid species feed strictly on pollen syrphids, like all flies , cannot eat pollen directly due to the structure of their mouthparts, but can consume pollen contents that are dissolved in a fluid.
Some species of Heliconius butterflies consume pollen as adults, which appears to be a valuable nutrient source, and these species are more distasteful to predators than the non-pollen consuming species.
Although bats , butterflies and hummingbirds are not pollen eaters per se , their consumption of nectar in flowers is an important aspect of the pollination process.
Bee pollen for human consumption is marketed as a food ingredient and as a dietary supplement. The largest constituent is carbohydrates , with protein content ranging from 7 to 35 percent depending on the plant species collected by bees.
Honey produced by bees from natural sources contains pollen derived p-coumaric acid ,  an antioxidant and natural bactericide that is also present in a wide variety of plants and plant-derived food products.
Food and Drug Administration FDA has not found any harmful effects of bee pollen consumption, except from the usual allergies.
However, FDA does not allow bee pollen marketers in the United States to make health claims about their produce, as no scientific basis for these has ever been proven.
Furthermore, there are possible dangers not only from allergic reactions but also from contaminants such as pesticides and from fungi and bacteria growth related to poor storage procedures.
A manufacturers's claim that pollen collecting helps the bee colonies is also controversial. The growing industries in pollen harvesting for human and bee consumption rely on harvesting pollen baskets from honey bees as they return to their hives using a pollen trap.
In forensic biology , pollen can tell a lot about where a person or object has been, because regions of the world, or even more particular locations such a certain set of bushes, will have a distinctive collection of pollen species.
In some Native American religion s, pollen is used in prayer s and rituals to symbolize life and renewal by sanctifying objects, dancing grounds, trails, and sandpainting s.
It may also be sprinkled over heads or in mouths. Many Navajo people believe the body becomes holy when it travels over a trail sprinkled with pollen.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Pollen disambiguation. It is not to be confused with Exene.
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It is the male germ seed sperm of plants. Pollination occurs when the pollen is carried by bees, wind, or other means from the flower's stamen to the stigma of another flower's pistil.
Fertilization results when the pollen reaches the "ovary" of the plant. This is when a seed is created. Without this process there wouldn't be any plant life on earth--flowers, fruits, vegetables, trees, etc.
Pollen is made up of microscopic grains. Each grain has an almost impenetrable outer shell. On the inside of the shell is where the pollen's nutrients are found.
Flower pollen is superior to bee pollen because it is pure and remains uncontaminated as it is transported for pollination; bee pollen, on the other hand, is contaminated with molds, spores, and bacteria as it is collected.
Bees collect plant pollen from many different sources, then bring it back to the hive. Bee's mouths are uniquely structured and produce particular enzymes to penetrate the hilas in the hard outer shells of pollen and remove the special rich nutrients inside.
Bees use this nutritive substance to make honey, royal jelly, propolis, and other materials used in the hive. Some conifers have both cone types on the same tree, making it possible for the tree to pollinate itself.
Cross pollination occurs when one tree produces only seed cones and therefore must be fertilized by pollen drifting to the seed cones from pollen cones located on other nearby trees.
Pollen cones are characteristically smaller and wider than seed cones. Pollen cones tend to whither and die once the pollen within the cones has been released to fertilize the seed cones.
In its dormant phase, a conifer bud may be male, female or vegetative. Distinguishing among bud types at this stage is possible only by dissection.
One clue that can help with pollen cone identification is its location. However, symptoms can be treated with medications and allergy shots.
Making certain lifestyle changes can also help relieve the symptoms associated with pollen allergies. There are hundreds of plant species that release pollen into the air and trigger allergic reactions.
Birch pollen is one of the most common airborne allergens during the spring. As the trees bloom, they release tiny grains of pollen that are scattered by the wind.
A single birch tree can produce up to 5 million pollen grains, with many traveling distances of up to yards from the parent tree.
While oak pollen is considered to be mildly allergenic compared to the pollen of other trees, it stays in the air for longer periods of time.
This can cause severe allergic reactions in some people with pollen allergies. It causes some of the most severe and difficult-to-treat symptoms. However, the AAAAI reports that allergy shots and allergy tablets can be highly effective in relieving symptoms of grass pollen allergies.
Ragweed plants are the main culprits of allergies among weed pollens. Depending on the location, however, ragweed may begin spreading its pollen as early as the last week of July and continue into the middle of October.
Its wind-driven pollen can travel hundreds of miles and survive through a mild winter. Your doctor can usually diagnose a pollen allergy. However, they may refer you to an allergist for allergy testing to confirm the diagnosis.
Make sure to tell them if the symptoms are always present or get better or worse at certain times of the year. During the procedure, the allergist will prick different areas of the skin and insert a small amount of various types of allergens.
You might also see a raised, round area that looks like hives. As with other allergies, the best treatment is to avoid the allergen.
However, pollen is very difficult to avoid. If you still experience symptoms despite taking these preventive measures, there are several over-the-counter OTC medications that may help:.